IJCRR - Vol 08 Issue 17, September
Date of Publication: 11-Sep-2016
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AN ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDY OF STATURE ESTIMATION AMONG MALES FROM THE MEASUREMENTS OF FEET IN UDAIPUR DISTRICT OF RAJASTHAN
Author: Charu Taneja, Hitesh Babel, L.K. Jain
Abstract:Background: Estimation of stature has a very significant role to play in forensic anthropometry for personal identification.
Objective: To discover out the correlation among proportions of feet with stature in tribals of Udaipur district in Rajasthan (India). Material and Methods: The present study was conducted on a total number of 481 male tribals of Udaipur district by using standard anthropometric techniques. Results: There was a high correlation between height and right (0.184) foot length and left (0.186) Foot Length in males.
Conclusion: Linear regression equations were deduced in males out of which lowest standard error of estimate was experienced in combined foot length of males.
Keywords: Stature, Foot length, Regression equations
Anthropometry is an important tool of physical anthropology for obtaining different measurements like stature on the living as well as dead (skeleton and skeletal remains) of man using scientific method. Physical anthropologists mainly deal with study of human origin and evolution of human beings. They also deal with study of different races in various parts of the world. Stature estimation has a very important role to play in forensic anthropometry for personal identification. Even anatomists and anthropologists apart from forensic experts have shown keen interest in estimating the height of an individual by measuring different parts of body like hand length, foot length. Previous researchers have established a very well defined relationship between height of individual and different parts of body like head, trunk and lengths of upper and lower limb. Important differences /variations between various ethnic groups have been studied in detail by comparing relationship between body segments and this has also been shown to be related to life style and locomotion. Prediction of dimensions of body segments is useful in many areas of modern science. The relationship between body segments and height is used in assessing growth in normal individuals as well as in people suffering from specific syndromes. The relationships between proportions of various body segments especially of long bones of limb (femur) with height have been most widely studied. It has been proved that stature can be estimated from a shoe left at the scene of a criminal offense. Similarly the stature of a victim can be estimated when a part of body, such as a long bone, or hand, is all that corpse. (Santosh K et al. ,2014)1 There is significant correlation between stature and foot length. If one is known, the other could be predicted and vice versa. This could be of help in medicolegal instances for recognition of body parts and also be of use in cosmetic surgery ( Oommen A et al., 2005)2
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Inclusion Criteria Tribal males and females of age group 18-32 years who were born and brought up in the tribal community of Udaipur region. Exclusion criteria Males and females having physical deformity, injury, disease, fracture, amputation or record of any surgical procedures affecting stature, hands and feet were excluded from the study. Nutrition and socioeconomic status were not assessed. Statistical Analysis The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis to derive the mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, regression coefficient. For testing the significance level, t test was applied. The following dimensions were measured based on the specific anatomical landmarks and the values were measured in millimeters. Stature It is the vertical distance between the highest point on vertex and the floor. The subject was made to stand barefoot on the foot place of the stature meter in an erect posture with the hands hanging down on the sides with the palm facing the thighs. Subject was asked to maintain upright posture and the movable piece was kept on the vertex and the height was recorded in millimeter. Foot Length It is the distance between the most backward and prominent part of heel and most distal part of longest toe of the foot, when the foot was fully stretched. The study design of the current study is Cross- sectional descriptive type.
We have come across that the mean age of males was 24.688 years and S.D. was 4.319. The average stature of males was 1613.457 ± 72.096 mm and ranged between 1426 to 1800 mm. In males the mean (mm) and S.D. of Foot Length measured of right side was 225.75 ± 19.299 and left side was 225.964 ± 19.275. In males the Foot Length was highly significant of right and left sides (p < 0.05). In males there was a high correlation between right and left side Foot Length (1.000).In males there was a near to mild correlation between right (0.184) foot length and left (0.186) side Foot Length in males with the stature.
In 1988 Philip TA 3 studied correlation between height and foot length in Male students of Karnataka and found correlation coefficient(r) as 0.71.
In 2007 Bhavna, Nath Surinder 4 studied correlation between height and Foot length in male Shia Muslims of New Delhi and found correlation coefficient(r) to be 0.546. A significant correlation was observed between foot length and stature.
In 2008 Krishan K 5 studied correlation between height and Foot length in male Gujjars of North India and found correlation coefficient(r) as 0.86.The highest correlation coefficient was shown between stature and foot measurements.
In 2011 Parash MTH et al. 6 studied correlation between height and Foot length in students of Dhaka and found correlation coefficient(r) as 0.69 for right foot and r for left side was 0.70. Both the length of right and left foot showed significant positive correlation with the stature.
In 2013 Singh JP et al. 7 studied correlation between height and Foot length in Male Volunteers of New Delhi and found correlation coefficient(r) as 0.583 for foot length in males. The foot length exhibited statistically significant correlation with stature (p<0.01).
In 2014 Dayananda R et al. 8 studied correlation between height and Foot length in Medical Students of Kolar and found correlation coefficient(r) as 0.636 for foot length. The correlation between stature and foot length was found to be positive and statistically significant (p value<0.001).
Present study is concerned with the dimensions of foot of the tribal males in Udaipur district. Detail knowledge of the dimension is essential for artists, anatomists, forensic experts, scientists, reconstructive surgeons. It is also useful in anthropological research, orthopedic surgery, other allied clinical sciences and ergonomics.
In forensic investigation difficulties are being experienced in the stature and gender estimation of bodies dismembered in mass destruction. So as to eliminate these difficulties, new methods are being developed. This study was dedicated to the derivation of regression formulae for estimating stature from fragmentary remains of hands, foot whenever such a thing is recovered. There are lot of variations in estimating stature from limb measurements among people of different region and race. It is, therefore, studies are required to collect the data from the different part of globe as the stature is the inherent characteristic of the individual, though influenced environmentally, therefore regional, simple and multiple regression equations can be of great value.
In the present study “An Anthropometric Study of Stature Estimation among Males from the Measurements of Feet in Udaipur District of Rajasthan” following conclusions were derived these were:
1. Parameters studied in the male population highly correlated of the right and left sides of the foot. A perfect positive correlation was noticed between right and left foot length.
2. In the present study among males for the right and left foot length there was a positive and near to mild correlation.
3. Linear regression equations were considered in males out of which lowest standard error of estimate was experienced in combined foot length of males.
Thus, this study strengthens the
1. Identify victims and criminals from different body parts and skeletal remains.
2. In adults volumes of lung, strength of muscle, glomerular filtration, body mass index, metabolic rate and drug dosage adjustment can be assessed by the height.
The author is grateful to Dr. Basant Sharma for his guiding wisdom that enabled me to successfully carry out this study.
Funding: None Conflict of Interest: None declared
• Ethical clearance obtained from the ethical committee.
• Ref: GU/UEC/EC/2013/312
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