International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - vol 05 issue 21, November, 2013

Pages: 23-29

Date of Publication: 21-Nov-2013

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Author: Hamideh Gharamaleki, Kazem Parivar, Jafar Soleimani Rad, Leila Roshangar Mehrdad Shariati

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Objective: In recent years, numerous reports indicate of the negative effects of electromagnetic fields on biological system. To evaluate the effects of 50Hz electromagnetic fields on parameters of oxidative stress in pregnant rats and its effects on ovarian tissue in F1 generation rats during puberty. Methods: In treatment group pregnant Wistar rats were exposed 3mT EMF for 21 days, 4 hours per day. Pregnant rats under same condition of treatment group, but off the field as a Sham group intended and pregnant rats were used as control in the room. After delivery the blood sample of mothers for biochemical analyze of MDA and SOD provided. For investigation of ovarian tissue pups, they were kept until maturity. Then adult female ovary of F1 generation were removed, fixed and prepared for light microscopy studies. Results: Biochemical analysis showed that MDA was significantly increased in the treated group in comparing with the controls, but no significant differences in SOD levels were observed between the groups. Microscopic results of the follicles F1 generation of treated group, in comparison with the control and Sham, showed that granulosa cells have interspaced from the basement membrane and in this group narrow and irregular in zona pellucida, vacuolization in ooplasm, detachment of granulosa cells was observed. Conclusion: The results suggest that pregnant maternal exposure in magnetic field cause of increases some of parameters of oxidative stress and also adverse effect on ovarian follicles in F1 generation during maturation and may impact on fertility.

Keywords: Electromagnetic field, Oxidative stress, Pathology, Ovary, prenatal

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The presence of electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and extremely Low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) are part of today life due to the increasing usage of electricity. (1) The EMF is produced by different home appliances devices such as televisions, computers, mobile phones and other life devices.(2, 3)

Byus et al (4) have reported a decrease in the activity of c-AMP independent protein kinas in 

response to Radio Frequency (RF) fields amplitude-modulated at extremely low frequencies (ELF). In biological systems, undesired effects, started or supported by EMF, trigger the cascade of events that end with adverse results.(5) Three mechanisms have been suggested to explain the effects of EMF on biological systems: magnetic induction, magneto mechanical effects and electronic interaction.(6,7)

Some epidemiological studies have showed that low frequency EMFs produced by 50 and 60 Hz electricity could increase malfunction of circulatory system, Central Nervous System (CNS) and even could increase the prevalence of neoplastic disorders in peoples living near the electric poles.(8) Interesting researches are performed in related with effects of magnetic fields on cellular stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, reproductive and fertility.(9)

Recent studies have shown that ELF-EMF by affecting biochemical or biophysical processes in the cell could alter cellular behavior. EMF could affect chemical bonds between neighboring atom and could also change the direction of electron spin and by this way it could affect the reactions between biological molecules. This mechanism would result in concentration and life span free radicals.(10) EMF result in excessive formation of ROS which would result in irreversible tissue damage.(11,12)  ROS can easily damage DNA, Lipid and proteins of the membrane.(12,13)

Living organisms can defense against free radicals by producing antioxidant enzymes such as: Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxides (GPX) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD).(10) SOD is the most important  antioxidant enzymes which is involved in removal of superoxide and H2O2 Since lipid peroxidation is increased by increasing of ROS, Malondialdehyde (MDA) that indicate lipid peroxidation is used as a marker oxidative stress. (9,14)

EMF also affect reproductive system and could lead to sub fertility, implantation disorder and congenital malformations.(15)

It has been reported that EMF and Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR) have detrimental effects fertility and reproductive in females.(16,17) Most of In-Vitro studies suggest that low-frequency magnetic field EMF could affect cellular metabolism, proliferation such effects many result in abnormalities in embryonic development.(18) Previous studies of female newborn rats to EMF of 10 kV/m for 24- hours/ day during developmental and neonatal period resulted in delayed puberty and some histopathological changes on reproductive organs.(19)

Since Stem cells are fully active in embryos, every physico-chemical factors could affect embryonic development including their reproductive organs. The evidence suggests that special attention must be taken in preventing embryos and neonates from EMFs. (20)

The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of EMF on biomarkers of stress oxidative such as MDA and SOD in pregnant rats exposed to EMF and on the ovary of the F1 generation during adulthood.



In the present research, 18 female Wistar rats weighting 200-250g with 2-3 month age were studied. The rats were supplied from animal house of the histology Department Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The rats were housed in plastic cages and kept under 12h light / dark condition under 20-220C, 50-60% humidity and free access to food and water. The rats were mated and pregnancy was determined by detection of vaginal plagues. The pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups of 6 rats in each group, including: experimental, sham and Control. 

Study design

The rats in treatment group randomly were exposed to 3mT EMF produced by 50Hz and the rats were exposed for 4 hours/day during the pregnancy period. The sham groups were kept in a similar condition without exposure to EMF. The control group were kept in standard condition.

After delivery, all rats were bleeding from the eye angle and the blood and sera were kept in -800C freezer for biochemical analysis and detection of MDA and SOD. For study of ovarian tissue the neonates were kept up to adolescence and at that time anesthetized using chloroform and their ovaries were removed, fixed in 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin and 5µm sections were stained with H and E and studied with light microscope.

MDA was measured on the basis of reaction thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and measuring absorbance spectrophotometer and calculated as nmol/ml. (21)

SOD was determined using RANSOD kit (obtained from RANDOX company of England) as U/ml, according to Sun et al.(22)

Statistical analysis

The data were analyzed and compared with control and sham group with SPSS v.19 software by using T-test and P<0.05 is considered as significant.


Biochemical analysis showed that in the treatment group MDA level in plasma compared with the control group was significantly higher (3.23 ± 0.39 vs.2.5 ± 0.36,  P< 0.008). MDA level in Sham group was not significantly different from the control group (figure 1). SOD level were not significantly different between the groups (figure2).

No pathological changes were observed in follicles of ovary in maturity F1 generation in control and Sham animals. In control group oocytes contain euchromatin nucleus and nucleolus, zona pellucid was obvious and a row of corona radiate cells, were obvious granulosa cells were regularly rest on the basement membrane. Internal and external theca layers were clearly seen and theca internal contained several blood vessels (figure 3). In sham group, the nucleus and nucleolus with zona pellucid and a row of corona radiate cells were similar to control group.

In treatment group, Granulosa cells were separated from each other and basement membrane was relatively large spaces. A thin and irregular zona pellucida was observable and ooplasm was vacuolated. Blood vessels appeared to be less extensive in the treatment group in comparison with control group (figure 4).


The results of present study that maternal exposure to ELF-EMF from 0 day of gestation lead to increasing of MDA level in treated groups in comparison with control group (figure 1). It has been reported that in rats exposed to 50 Hz electric field, MDA level increased. (23) Changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes were found following 10-day or 2-month exposures to MFs at 0.5- 50 µT.(24)  Exposure of guinea pigs to 50 Hz, 1.5mT for four days increased MDA, Nitric oxide (NO) levels and myeloperoxidase activity but decreased GSH level.(25) It showed that long- term ELF-MF exposure increases lipid peroxides activity.(10) Increasing of MDA level in this study is consistent with previous studies and the results Guler G. et al that showed serum MDA level had increased in guinea pig in electric field.(26)

In the present study, the SOD level was not significantly different between groups (figure 2). Eraslan et al (2007) suggested that chronic (90 days) exposure to 50 Hz EMF does not cause oxidative stress. They showed that the concentration of antioxidant enzymes in the blood of mice did not increase. The studies showed that exposure to EMF for prolonged periods causes increasing of SOD activity in animal tissues. Levels of catalase, GPX and SOD were significantly increased in the liver and lungs of mice exposed to EMF for 8 weeks.(25) The discrepancy in SOD level in the present results, as compared to those mentioned above could be explained by the differences in the duration exposure time, intensity and frequency of EMF.

The present study shows that EMF exposure in prenatal period in ovary of F1 generation during maturity, caused separation of granolusa cells from each other and from basement membrane and thinning of zona pellucid and vacuolization of ooplasm (figure 4). It is reported that of exposure cultured follicles of mice to 33 Hz Super low frequency- electromagnetic field (SLF-EMF) for 5-day resulted in disturbed follicular growth. Also exposure to 33 Hz or 50 Hz SLF-EMF for 3 days inhibited the antrum formation of follicles cultured in-vitro.(2)

Exposure of ovarian follicles to EMF resulted in separation of Granulose cells from neighbor cells (27,28)  which is similar to the result of the present study. Roshangar and colleagues have reported that EMF exposure increases degenerative changes within the follicles and narrowing of zona pellucid in treatment group.(29) Cecconi and colleagues found that exposure to 33 Hz EMF decreased significantly the growth rate of follicles and also at 33 and 50 Hz frequency reduced the proportion of follicles capable of further development. It was demonstrated that ELF-EMF exposure significantly affects the differentiation process of mouse follicles by diminishing the proportion of pre-antral follicles capable of complete growth and / or of developing antral cavities. It reported that ELF-EMF exposure has a detrimental effect on the physiological parameters of the majority of exposed follicles and that this detrimental effect on the Granulose cells, determines an impaired ability to sustain normal oocyte differentiation.(30)


The present study indicates that pregnant maternal exposure in magnetic field cause of increases some of parameters of oxidative stress and also adverse effect on ovarian follicles in F1 generation and may impact on fertility.


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Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
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A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
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A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
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A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
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A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
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A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
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A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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