International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR)

Full Html


IJCRR - Vol 11 Issue 20, October

Pages: 01-08

Date of Publication: 30-Oct-2019


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

Prevalence of Neck Pain in Computer Workers in Surat City: A Cross-sectional Study

Author: Sneha Hiren Bhalala

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Aim: The purpose of our study is to determine the prevalence of neck pain in computer workers.
Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study amongst neck pain in computer workers of 20-50 year old.
Methods and Material: A cross-sectional study was done. 100computer worker in that 81 male and 19 female, they should be working on computer for at least 3 hours / day of different company in Surat were surveyed after written informed consent with a semi-structured questionnaire including Neck Disability Index.
Conclusion: From this study it is concluded that 55 % of the people of age group 20 to 50 years have mild and moderate neck pain.

Keywords: Neck pain, Computer operators, Ergonomics

DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.31782/IJCRR.2019.11201

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION -

Neck pain is a common health problem in the general population and especially among computer workers. Most people experience some degree of neck pain in their lifetime.1,2 It was also described in the 18th century, along with other work related upper limb disorders by Bernardini Ramazzini- an Italian physician and the father of occupational medicine - when he said the diseases : “... arise from three causes; firstly, constant sitting, secondly the perpetual motion of the hand in the same manner, and thirdly the attention and the application of the mind...”3 Musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and shoulder in office workers are likely influenced by prolonged static working  positions,4   leading  to  continuous  activity  of  low-threshold  motor  units,reduced local blood flow, accumulation of Ca2+, and other homeostatic changes in theactive muscle fibers.5,6 Thus, pain symptoms appear to worsen during prolonged static muscle activity and repetitive job tasks.7,8 The associated costs are enormous, as white-collar workers with neck/shoulder pain have a 35% increased risk of long-term sickness absence.9

Structures of neck:

There are seven vertebrae that are the bony building blocks of the spine in the neck that surround the spinal cord and canal. Between these vertebrae are discs, and nearby pass the nerves of the neck. Within the neck, structures include the neck muscles, veins, arteries, lymph glands, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, esophagus, larynx and trachea. Diseases or conditions that affect any of these tissues of the neck can lead to neck pain.10

The cervical spine has a “C” shaped curve which opens in the back. In the healthy cervical spine displaying a moderate degree of lordosis, a good share of weight bearing is on the zygoapophyses because the line of cumulative loading of

Compressive forces are posterior to the centre of the vertebral bodies. The more the cervical curve flattens, the more superimposed weight is shifted to the disc.10, 11

An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pain has both physical and emotional components. The physical part of pain results from nerve stimulation. Pain is mediated by specific nerve fibers that carry the pain impulses to the brain where their conscious appreciation may be modified by many factors. The word "pain" comes from the Latin "poena". Neck is the spinal structure that supports the head. It is least protected structure compared to the rest of the spine. Due to its anatomical structure the neck is highly vulnerable to injury and from conditions that produce pain and restriction of motion. Forward head posture is one of the contributing factors for the postural neck pain which is habitually assumed by individual working on the computers.12 Having your head rest too far forward can cause the ‘C’ shaped curve in your neck to decrease, and keeping your head too far back can accentuate it. These positions can increase the amount of stress placed on the muscles, ligaments, facets and discs in and around your neck. This undue stress can cause neck pain.11

         Sustained passive loading of such innervated tissue in functional sitting

postures may provoke a local tissue reaction possibly causing pain. In computer professionals working is related to increasing hours of computer use and incomplete work rest cycle.13,14,15 Musculoskeletal discomfort in neck, shoulder and upper extremity area in professional working on video display hours of computer use and incomplete work rest cycle, i.e. increased frequency of those using input device such mouse or key board.15,16 By ergonomics interventions such as supporting the forearm on table-top, a reduction of postural load discomfort such as neck pain been achieved17,18,19 Work organizational factors such as increasing work pressure or hurry and lack of job security or decision making opportunities as well as problem in work atmosphere may contribute to an increased occurrence of work related musculoskeletal complains.20

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

             Aim: - To estimate the prevalence of neck pain in computer workers.

Objective: - To study of consequences of neck pain in terms of disability in daily life.

MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY

  1. Statement of study:

The study of prevalence of neck pain in computer worker between age group of 20 to 50 years.

  1. Significance of study:

This study will help to know about the prevalence of neck pain in computer operators in Surat city

  1. Study design:

Study design:  Cross-sectional study

Sampling method: Convenient sampling method

  1. Sample size: 100 subjects

  2. Sample source: The location for the research was selected as Surat city.

    • Enwisen Consulting LLP, Adajan, Surat.

                        Pranesh Agrawal & Co. Chartered Accountants, Chhapania Sheri, Surat.

    • FINlogic technologies India Pvt. Limited, Udhna, Surat

  1. Outcome Measure:

Neck Disability Index

  1. Inclusion Criteria:

    • Subjects willing to participate.

    • Neck pain people of age group 20 to 50 years were included.

    • Persons using computer more than 3 hours a day.

    • Both males and females were included in this study.

  1. Exclusion Criteria

    • Any  specific  medical  condition  affecting  the  cervical  spine.  (such  as ankylosing spondylitis, tumors, infection, and rheumatoid arthritis)

    • Subjects below and above age group 20 to 50 years were excluded.

Material:

Pen, Pencil, Paper, Questionnaire form

Questionnaire used:-

            Neck Disability Index (NDI)

NDI questionnaire is designed to provide information of how neck pain affects a person’s ability to manage in everyday life. The questionnaire has 10 components and each component has scoring 0 to 5. Thus total score achievable is 50. Greater score indicates greater disability.

Scores (out of 50) 0-4  No Disability

5-14 Mild Disability

15-24 Moderate Disability

25-34  Sever Disability

>35 Complete Disability

Test–retest reliability for NDI is found to be good, r=0.89. Interclass correlation (ICC) =0.68, 95% CI=0.54-0.90. Cronbach’s alpha is 0.80. Specificity and sensitivity are 59% and 52% respectively.28

Procedure for data collection:-

One hundred computer workers (19 females and 81 males) whose age ranged from 20 to 50 years participated in the study. Participation in the study was voluntary and informed consent was taken prior to participation. They were selected by convenient sampling. Workers were explained about this study and about the questionnaires that were to be filled prior to the participation. Questionnaires, Neck Disability Index was then handed out amongst the workers in the company and collected after being filled.

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

From the above table we can say that:

      • 56 % People have no pain at the moment.

      • 18 % People have very mild pain at the moment.

      • 13 % People have moderate pain at the moment

      • 8 % People have fairly severe pain at the moment.

      • 1 % People have very severe at the moment.

      • 4% People have worst pain at the moment.

From the above study we can say that:

      • 60% People can look after themselves without causing extra pain(0)

      • 10% People can look after themselves normally but it causes extra pain(1)

      • 19% People have pain to look after themselves and are slow and careful(2)

      • 7 % People need some help but manage most of their personal care(3)

      • 2% people need help every day in most aspects of self-care. (4)

      • 2% people do not get dressed; wash with difficulty and stay in bed. (5)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

      • From the above study, we can say that:

    • 40 % of People can lift heavy weights without extra pain.(0 )

      30% of People can lift heavy weight, but it gives extra pain (1)

      In 9%  People, pain prevents them from lifting heavy weight of the floor but they can manage if they are conveniently positioned. (2)

      In13 %  People pain prevents them from lifting heavy weights but they can manage light to medium weights if they are conveniently positioned.(3)

      8% people can lift very light weight.(4)

      From the above study, we can say that:

      39% People can read as much as they want to with no pain in their neck(0)

      27% People can read as much as they want to with slight pain in their neck(1)

      14 % People can read as much as they want with moderate pain in their neck(2)

      14% People cannot read as much as they want because of moderate pain in their neck(3)

      7% People can hardly read at all because of severe pain in their neck (4).

       

      • From the above study, we can say that,

      • 39% people have no headaches at all(0)
      • 29% People have slight headaches that come infrequently(1)

      • 5% People have moderate headaches which come frequently(2)

      • 10% People have severe headaches which come frequently(3)

      • 6% People have severe headaches which come frequently. (4)

      • 15%people have headaches almost all the time. (5)

      • From the above study, we can say that:

      • 39% People can concentrate fully when they want to with no difficulty (0)

      • 29% People can concentrate fully when they want to with slight difficulty (1)

      • 14% People have a fair degree of difficulty in concentrating when they want to(2)

      • 1% People have a lot of difficulty in concentrating when they want to (3)

      • 6% People have a great deal of difficulty in concentrating when they want to. (4)

      • 11% people cannot concentrate at all. (5)

      •  

      From the above study, we can say that:

      47% People can do as much as work as they want to(0)

      13% People can do their usual work, but no more(1)

      17% People can do most of their usual work, bit no more(2)

      17% People cannot do their work(3)

      4% People can hardly do any work at all. (4)

      2% People cannot do any work at all. (5)

       

       

      From the above study, we can say that:

      36% People can drive car without neck pain. (0)

      30% People can drive car as long as they want with slight pain in neck. (1)

      8% People can drive car as long as they want with moderate pain in neck. (2) 

      14% People cannot drive car as long as they want because of moderate pain in neck. (3)

      2% People can hardly drive car at all because of severe pain in neck. (4) 10% People cannot drive car at all. (5)

       

      From the above study, we can say that:

      53% People have no trouble sleeping (0)

      18% People sleep is slightly disturbed (less than 1 hour sleepless). (1)

      9% People sleep is mildly disturbed (1-2 hours sleepless). (2)

      14% People sleep is moderately disturbed (2-3 hours sleepless). (3)

      4% People sleep is greatly disturbed (3-5 hours sleepless).(4)

      2% People sleep is completely disturbed (5-7 hours sleepless). (5)

       

      From the above study, we can say that

      • 50% People are able to engage in all recreation activities with no neck pain at all(0)
      • 18% People are able to engage in all their recreation activities with some pain in the neck(1)
      • 13% People are able to engage in most but not all of their usual recreation activities because of pain in their neck(2)
      • 15% People able engage in a few of usual recreational activities because of pain in neck. (3)

       

      References:

      1. Makela, M., et al, Prevalence, determinants, and consequences of chronic neck pain in Finland. Am J Epidemiol, 199 1341356-67.

      2. Sluiter, J.K., Rest, K.M and Frings-Dresen, M.H, Criteria document for evaluating the work-relatedness of upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2001. 27 Suppl 1: p. 1-10

      3. Van der Windt DAWM, Thomas E, Pope DP, et al. Occupational risk factors for shoulder  pain:  a   systematic   review. Occupational   and   Environmental Medicine. 2000;57(7):433–442. [PMC free article][PubMed]

      4. Visser    B,     van     Dieen    JH.     Pathophysiology    of     upper    extremity        muscle disorders. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2006;16(1):1–16. [PubMed]

      5. Staal JB, de Bie RA, Hendriks EJM. Aetiology and management of work-related upper  extremity  disorders. Best  Practice  and  Research:   Clinical Rheumatology. 2007;21(1):123–133. [PubMed]

      6. Buckle  P.  Ergonomics  and  musculoskeletal  disorders:  overview. Occupational Medicine. 2005; 55(3):164–167. [PubMed]

      7. Blangsted AK, Hansen K, Jensen C. Muscle activity during computer-based office work in relation to self-reported job demands and gender. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2003; 89(3-4):352–358.[PubMed]   

      8. Hagberg M, thiringer G,(2005 July) prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among the student enrolled in academic music education.phy thm,2005,132-144

      9. Cho CY, Hwang IS, Chen CC, the association between musculoskeletal symptoms psychological distress experienced by Chinese students.2003, 591-677.

      10. Bart N Green (Aug 2008 San Diego) studied neck pain associated with computer use: public health implications. Eur Spine J.2007; 16(5):679-89[Pub Med].

      11. Prawit Janwantanakul, Praneet Pensri, Viroj Jiamjarasrangsri and Thanes Sinsongsook (Thailand) studied prevalence of self-reported musculo skeletal symptoms among office workers. Occupational Medicine 2008 58(6):436-438. (Occmed)

      12. T. Korhonen, R. Ketola, R. Toivonen, R. Luukkonen, M. Hakkanen and E. Vikkari – Juntura studied work related and individual predictors for incident neck pain among office employees working with video display unit. Ptjournal 89:351-360.

      13. Siivola SM, Levoska S, Latvala K, Hoskio E, Vanharanta H, Keinanen – Kiukaanniemi S. (2004) studied on predictive factors for neck and shoulder pain.

      14. Cho CY (2003) has studied that the incidence of faulty posture was high for the adolescent group, especially for the uneven shoulder level. The relationship among number of faulty posture, psychological distress and musculoskeletal symptoms were low.

      15. Smith DR, Tanka H (19th December 2003) concluded that muscular in balance is common among rural Japanese Nurses and its prevalence is consistent between related facilities.

      16. Diepenmaat AC, Van Der Wal MF, De Vet HC, Hirasing RA (2001) studied that neck / shoulder, low back and arm pain in relation to computer use, physical activities, stress and depression among Dutch adolescents.

      17. Poussa MS,Helivaara MM,Seitsamo JT,Kononen MH,Hurmerinta KA,Nissinen MJ(1997) studied on predictors of neck pain: a cohort study of children followed up from the age of 11 to 22 years.

      18. Auvinen J, Tammelin T,Taimela S,Zitting P,Karppinen (1991) studied that neck and shoulder pain in relation to physical activity and sedentary activities in adolescents.

      19. Dr. S A Shah, Dr. P R Patel studied on prevalence of neck pain in computer operators in Ahmedabad. NHL Journal of Medical Sciences/ Jan 2015/ Vol 4/ issue 1.

      20. Faiza Sabeen,Muhammad Salman Bashir,Syed Imtiaz Hussain,Sarah Ehsan studied on prevalence of neck pain in computer users, Pakistan. ANNALS VOL 19, ISSUE 2, APR. – JUN. 2013

      21. Mst Halima Khatun, Pradip Sen Gupta, Md Monoarul Haque- Proportion of Neck Pain and its Associated Risk Factors among Office Workers in Dhaka City, EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH- Vol. II, Issue 11/ February 2015

      22. Smith DR, Tanka H (19th December 2003) concluded that muscular in balance is common among rural Japanese Nurses and its prevalence is consistent  between related facilities.

      23. B. Cagnie E L. Danneels E D. Van Tiggelen E ,V. De Loose E D. Cambie Individual and work related risk factors for neck pain among office workers: a cross sectional study. Eur Spine J (2007) 16:679–686

      24. Ariens, G.A., et al., High physical and psychosocial load at work and sickness absence due to neck pain. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2002. 28(4): p. 222-31

      25. T. Korhonen, R. Ketola, R. Toivonen, R. Luukkonen, M. Hakkanen and E. Vikkari – Juntura studied work related and individual predictors for incident neck pain among office employees working with video display unit. Ptjournal 89:351-360.

      26. David J. Magee orthopaedic physical assessment. 5th  edition, New Delhi, India. Elsevier. 2008

      27. Van den Heuvel SG, Heinrich J, Jans MP, Van der Beek AJ, Bongers PM ( 2003) studied on the effect of physical activity in leisure time on neck and upper limb symptoms.

      28. L Smith, Q Louw, L Crous and Grimmer Somers (7 June 2008 Australia) studied prevalence of neck pain and headache: Impact of computer use and other associated factors.Cephalagia volume 29 issue 2, 250-257.