IJCRR - Vol 11 Issue 05, March
Date of Publication: 14-Mar-2019
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Two New Cladosporium Species from Murshidabad District, West Bengal, India
Author: Dinesh Haldar
Category: Life Sciences
Abstract:Introduction: Cladosporium is a member of dematiaceous hyphomycetes which is characterized and easily recognised by its unique structure of the conidiogenous loci and conidial hila. Despite being imperfect in forms, they are the most versatile organisms in nature. While working on dematiaceous hyphomycetes from Murshidabad district, two specimens of Cladosporium had been collected which on critical examination characterised as two new species.
Methods: The infected leaves with distinct symptoms were collected and dried to make herbarium specimens. The microscope slides were prepared in lacto-phenol cotton blue mixtures of the recognised species. The fungi, treated here were studied in their natural habitat on the leaves of Clitoria terrnatea and Hibiscus mutabilis.
Results and Discussion: Two new species of Cladosporium viz. Cladosporium clitoriae Haldar and Cladosporium murshidabadense Haldar on Clitoria ternatea Land Hibiscus mutabilis L. respectively had been collected, figured and described in the present communication with notes on their phylogeny and ecology.
Keywords: Anamorphic, Hyphomycetes, Taxonomy, sp.nov
DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.31782/IJCRR.2019.1013
The genus Cladosporium, a well documented fungus and was established by Link in the year 1815 with Cladosporium herbarum (Pers: Fr.) Link ex S.F. Gray is the type species. It had been named as “Klados” means a branch, hence branched spore chains. The taxonomic position of the genus Cladosporium is almost accepted as being a member of the form family Cladosporiaceae under the order Hyphomycetes of the form class Deuteromycetes. The genus Cladosporium is well characterized and easily recognised by its unique structure of the conidiogenous loci and conidial hila which classified as coronate, i.e., composed of a central convex dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Cladosporoid are common and worldwide distribution and it is one of the largest, most heterogeneous genera of hyphomycetes, comprising more than 772 names i.e., valid, invalid, legitimate and illegitimate species, varieties, formae as well as herbarium name. Reasons for this vast number of taxa probably reside in the imprecise, wide circumscription of this genus in literature, the strong morphological variability of most species and the occurrence of some species on a wide range of substrates. The members of Cladosporium is a dematiaceous fungi occurring on all kinds of living and dead leaves and stems of herbaceous and woody plants, as secondary invaders on necrotic leaf lesions caused by other fungi, are frequently isolated from air, soil, food stuffs, paint, textiles and other organic matters.
Reviews keys of Cladosporoid taxa on living plants were provided by a large number of worker from India and abroad. Some of them are : Amanelah, Beharvandi & Zafari2, Avasthi, Gautam &Bhadauria3 Bensch et al4 ., Braun &Hill5, Braun &Crous6, Crous7, Crous et al,8. Crous 9 ,Das10,David &David11,Dugan et al.12,Ellis13, Ellis14, Heuchert, Braun &Schubert15, He & Zhanh16,Jang et al17,Kirk18, Mu?enko, Schubert & Kozlowska 19, Partridge & Morgan-Jones 20, Schubert et al,21 Schubert & Braun22,Seifert ,Nickerson & Corlet23 Schubert & Braun24, Wirsel SGR & Runge- Frobose25, Thomma, Van Esse & Crous26 , Schubert et al 27 , Braun & Schubert28, Zhang et al29, Sharma et al30, Sandoval-Denis et al31, Subramania32, Kamal33 and Haldar34.
During working on the foliicolous fungi of Murshidabad district in the year 2016 of West Bengal the author had collected two members of Hyphomycetes growing on the living leaves of Clitoria ternatea L. (Fabaceae)and Hibiscus mutabilis L.(Malvaceae). which on critical examination found to be two new species of the genus Cladosporium. Hence, these two species. Cladosporium clitoriae Haldar sp.nov. and Cladosporium murshidabadense Haldar sp.nov. have been created as new taxa (Myco Bank35).
The district of Murshidabad is located in the central part of the state of West Bengal under Presidency Division, lies between 23°43/ to24052/ N latitude and 87049/ to 88044/ E longitude and occupies an area of 5341sq km. The district is separated from the Maldah district by the river Ganga on its north. The eastern boundary of the district is formed by Bangladesh. It is bounded by the districts of Burdwan and Nadia on the south, the Birbhum district and the state of Jharkhand located in the western side. The river Bhagirathi flowing across the district divides it into almost two equal parts. The western part is known as Rarh which is substantially continuation of sub-vindhyan region. The soil of this district is primarily alluvial. The tract east to river is known as Bagri and is covered with recent alluvium consisting sandy clay. The elevation of the district is from 10m to 50m above MSL. Ganga and its tributaries such as Bhagirathi, Jalangi and Bhairab are the important rivers of the district. The district is oppressively having hot summer, short winter, high humidity and good rainfall during monsoon season. The average annual rainfall of the district is 1400 mm.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Specimens with typical disease symptoms of Cladosporoid fungi on living leaves were collected during field trips. The infected leaves were detached intact from the host plants and they were kept in polythene bags and processed by following standard techniques Castaneda85. Photographs of the infected spots on the host leaves were captured by Sony DSC-HX200, camera and for the examination of fungal structure and spore morphology, the microscope slides were prepared in lacto-phenol cotton blue mixtures of the recognised species. Morphotaxonomic study of the associated fungi was done through the low and high magnification 100x400 of the compound microscope, (Olympus-CX21i FS1 Research Microscope) by using USB INSTA CMOS camera. The microphotographs were stored in electronic format JPEG. Holotypes being deposited at AMH, Agharkar Research Institute (ARI), Pune (MS), India and isotypes retained in the Departmental herbarium (KNC)for future reference.
Cladosporium clitoriae Haldar sp.nov.(Fig.1)
Myco Bank MB 829285
Incidence in winter, infection foliicolous inciting whitish, necrotic, spots amphigenous distinct on upper surface, numerous, subcircular to irregular, sometimes surrounded by grey margin, lesions occasionally developing shot-hole appearance, 1.5-2.5 in diam. caespituli epiphyllous, brown, mycelium immersed, superficial, smooth. stroma amphigenous,well developed, arising from the epidermal hairs of the host tissue, composed of thick walled isodiametric type of cells, light brown: conidiophores solitary to fasciculate, with 2-8 divergent stalks in a fascicle arising from the base of the stroma and rarely through the stomata, straight to curved, pale brown, septate, simple to branched, sometimes nodose with terminal and intercalary swelling, thick walled, smooth with distinct scars, after succession of conidia, apex sub acute to obtuse, average length 277.56-627.92 µm and breadth-29.16µm.conidia solitary to catenate up to 3 in a chain, pale olivaceous, usually straight, rarely curved, cylindrical, ellipsoidal, thin walled, smooth to verruculose, up to 4 septate, often with distinct protuberant scar at both ends, average length 53.49-212.89 µm and breadth 29.16 µm.
Etymology: Referring to the genus of the host.
Habitat in folis vivis Clitoria ternatea L.(Fabaceae),Ring Road, Berhampore, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India, AMH 9847(Holotypus), KNC 142 (Isotypus). D.Haldar, 06.11.1016.
Cladosporium murshidabadense sp.nov.(Fig.2)
MycoBank MB 829286
Incidence in rainy season, spots formed on lamina, amphigenous, semi circular to circular, dark brown centre surrounded by blackish margin, sometimes no definite spots, only greyish discoloration without any boundary,0.5—10 mm in diam,; caespituli amphigenous ,vein limited, unevenly distributed over the spots, black; stroma present(23.60-297.87 µm),occasionally only a few brownish spherical to gobular hyphal cells, substomatal; conidiophores amphigenous, solitary to fasciculate, in fascicles 2-7 stalks emerging the stomatal opening, straight to flexus, brown to pale brownish, simple or branched, thick walled, smooth, very often nodose, plurisepted (1-9 septa),septa distinct, often geniculate, often terminal vesicular swelling with distinct spore scar lying at the apex or by the side wall of the conidiophores,(average length 559.33-1124.60 µm) and breadth(40.79-48.02 µm);conidia solitary to catenate, cylindrical, ellipsoidal, lemon shaped, oblong, pale brown, smooth, thick walled 0-3 septate, hilum distinct aat one end or both ends, average length,(53.26-137.97 µm) and average breadth (25.81-54.88 µm).
Specimen studied : On Hibiscus mutabilis L. (Malvaceae), Kossim Bazar, Berhampore, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India, AMH-9748(Holotypus), KNC 317(Isotypus), D.Haldar,2 June,2016.
Etymology: Referring to the genus of the host.
No species of Cladosporium has yet been recorded and described on the hosts Clitoria ternatea L.(Fabaceae) and Hibiscus mutabilis L.(Malvaceae) and there is no record of this genus so far on other members of the family Fabaceae and Malvaceae respectively. So, the present fungus is described and illustrated here as a new taxon.
The fungi Cladosporium clitoriae Haldar and Cladosporium murshidabadense Haldar has been found to occur profusely during winter months to spring and early summer. The host plants Clitoria ternatea L. and Hibiscus mutabilis L. both are economically important. The roots of Clitoria ternatea L. is used as powerful cathartic and diuretic. Flowers yield a blue dye. Seeds contain a fixed oil. Both seeds and root-bark contain tannin. Purgative and leaves used as fodder. On the other hand Hiiscus mutabilis L. bark yields a strong fibre of inferior quality. Leaves used for cough, menorrhagia, dysuria and wounds caused by burns and scalds. Flowers given in pectoral and pulmonary complaints36.
Two new species of Cladosporium viz Cladosporium clitoriae Haldar and Cladosporium murshidabadense Haldar growing on two ornamental plants namely Clitoria ternatea L. and Hibiscus mutabilis L. They cause severe leaf infection of the host plants resulted which the growth of the plants become stunted. A pathologist should develop the control measures of the disease.
The author is thankful to the Principal, Krishnath College, Murshidabad, West Bengal for rendering help during the present work.. The author expresses his sincere gratitude to the Curator of AMH-ARI, Pune for depositing holotype of the specimens and providing the accession numbers. I wish to acknowledge the extended help of Dr. S. Bandyopadhyay, Assistant Professor and Head, Department of Botany, Krishnath College, Murshidabad for the identification of host plants. The author is also grateful to the Director, UGC, for financial support. Author acknowledges the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in reference in the manuscript. The author is also grateful to authors/editors/publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.
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