International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: SCOPUS, Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, BOAI, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, e-Print, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg, SciPeople.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Readers around the world

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 10 Issue 11, June, 2018

Pages: 07-10

Date of Publication: 11-Jun-2018


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study

Author: Deep Jitendra Meisheri, Ashwin Devasya, Giri DK, Ravi Acharya, Jha MS

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) describes the clinical picture of hypomineralization of systemic origin affecting one or more first permanent molar and incisors. Although the reported prevalence of MIH ranges from 2.4% to 40.2% worldwide, very little data is available from Nepal.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of MIH in children aged 7-13 years of Biratnagar, Nepal.
Study design: This cross-sectional descriptive study consisted of 567 children aged 7-13 years selected by cluster sampling method. Examinations were performed by one calibrated pediatric dentist. The European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (EAPD) 2003 criteria was used for diagnosis.
Results: The prevalence of MIH was 8.6% in the age group of 7 to 13 years. The prevalence of MIH was 8.33% in males and 9.01% in females. The prevalence and severity of MIH increased with increase in age. The prevalence of MIH was 10.54% in the age group of 10 to 13 years as compared to 5.95% in the age group of 7-9 years.
Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH was 8.6% in the age group of 7 to 13 years. Developmental dental defects hold significance for scientists and practitioners from both medicine and dentistry. Dental interest has recently swung toward Molar Hypomineralisation. MIH imposes a significant burden on global health and has potential to become medically preventable, being linked to infantile illness.

Keywords: First permanent molars, MIH in Nepal, Molar-incisor hypomineralization

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION:

Developmental dental defects hold significance for scientists and clinicians from both medicine and dentistry. Dental interest has recently swung toward Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH), a prevalent condition characterized by well-demarcated opacities in enamel. Molar incisor hypomineralization is defined as the developmentally derived dental defect that involves hypomineralization of one to four permanent molars, frequently associated with similarly affected permanent incisors.[1] MIH is also named as idiopathic enamel hypomineralization, nonfluoride hypomineralization in first permanent molars, and cheese molars.[2,3,4] The condition is attributed to disruption of ameloblastic activity during the transitional and maturational stages of ameloblasts.[5] MIH clinical appearance may vary from white to yellow opacities and from soft to porous enamel. The porous enamel when subjected to masticatory stress lead to post eruptive breakdown of enamel, making tooth susceptible to thermal and cold stimuli.

 The MIH prevalence varies from 2.4% to 40.2% globally. [1] Most of the studies have been carried out in Northern Europe and the rates between 3.6% and 25% were reported. The reported prevalence of MIH varied from 2.4% in Germany and Bulgaria, 40% in Leeds, and 44% in Sydney. [1,3,4] Very little data is available for the prevalence of MIH in children in Nepal. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of MIH in children aged 7-13 years of Biratnagar, Nepal.

Materials and methods

The study was approved by the Institutional Review Committee of the Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital. The nature and purpose of the study was explained to the heads of the schools and prior permission was obtained to conduct the survey in their schools. The study was conducted during the period of Oct-Feb 2017/18.

Study Population

 The study population consisted of 600 children aged 7-13-yrs old recruited from the schools. The socio-economic status was almost similar and rated low moderate according to parental education and occupation. A cluster sampling method was used in this study (schools as clusters). The children with generalized hypoplastic/hypomineralized defects, such as amelogenesis imperfecta and those suffering from any chronic illness were excluded from the present study.

Selection Criteria

All the children who participated in the present study were instructed to brush prior to the clinical examination. The status of permanent incisors and molars was evaluated and recorded, according to the  European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) 2003 criteria.[1]  Teeth were inspected visually in daylight with a torch, while the child is seated in an ordinary chair by a single pediatric dentist. To examine, sterilized mouth mirror and probe were used. The probe was occasionally used to remove plaque. All the children diagnosed with MIH were reexamined by a second investigator to rule out any discrepancy. The entire indexed tooth was kept wet while examination to rule out opacities due to excessive drying, and the size of lesion was not taken into consideration.

Statistical Analysis:

Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) (SPSS Inc, Version 16 Chicago, IL, USA) to analyze the data. Karl Pearson Chi-square test is used to compare the proportions. Differences were considered statistically significant if P ≤ 0.05.

Results:

In total, 600 children aged 7 to 13 years were examined of which 567 were included in the study. Data of 49 children diagnosed with MIH were statistically analyzed. The interexaminer agreement was good (kappa = 0.879). A total of 26 male and 23 female children were diagnosed with MIH. Distribution of the subjects by age and gender is presented in (Table 1). Prevalence of hypomineralized lesions was assessed; the majority of children were unaffected, whereas 49 (8.6%) had either molar/incisor or both affected with MIH. The children diagnosed were divided into three categories on the basis of tooth affected, viz., molars, molars with incisors, and incisors with opacities. 37(75.5%) children had only molars affected compared to 9(18.3%) which had both incisors and molars affected. Only 3(6.12%) children had only incisors with opacities. (Table 2)

MIH in single molars were the most common finding at 38.77% with all the four molars least affected at only 10.2%. (Table 3)

The prevalence of MIH was 8.6% in the age group of 7 to 13 years. The prevalence of MIH was 8.33% in males and 9.01% in females. The prevalence and severity of MIH increased with increase in age. The prevalence of MIH was 10.54% in the age group of 10 to 13 years as compared to 5.95% in the age group of 7-9 years. (Table 4)

Discussion:

In our study, the prevalence of MIH was found to be 8.6%, which was well within the range observed in other studies conducted in various parts of the world. As far as Asia was concerned the prevalence rate was estimated to be the least (2.8%) in Hong Kong and highest (18.6%) in Iraq (2003-2011). [6-8] No significant correlation was found between age groups and the number of affected teeth. The present study also found 18.3% of children diagnosed with MIH presented lesions in both permanent first molars and incisors which is much lower than global values. [9-14]The incisors of the MIH affected children revealed demarcated enamel opacities and enamel loss with higher rate of opacities. This finding tends to be in line with most other studies which found affected incisors to have rarely exhibited posteruptive breakdown because of the absence of masticatory forces upon these surfaces. [15-21] One possible limitation for this study may be the association of MIH with past medical history which was not possible due to lack of information available with the parents and schools. Future studies can overcome this limitation by using the child’s medical records and thorough history given by parents. There is also a need to better understand the condition in the country of  Nepal. There is also a need for longitudinal studies with large sample size to better obtain the prevalence rate and also understand the etiological factors associated with MIH in Nepal.

Conclusion:

The present study reports a prevalence of 8.6% in children of age group 8 to 12 years. Thus, MIH is a frequently occurring dental ailment in the pediatric population. Children with MIH require therapy shortly after tooth eruption. This study shows that the severity of MIH lesions increases with age. Therefore, dentists must be aware of the clinical consequences and pay special attention to children with MIH. This data could be helpful in estimating the baseline data of MIH among the Nepalese population. The first step in effective management of MIH should be the implementation of comparable, representative studies of MIH prevalence among different populations throughout the world. The awareness about the condition would help in the preventive and therapeutic measures for combating this alarming developmental disturbance of teeth which is also of relevance for public health authorities.

References:

  1. Weerheijm KL, Duggal M, Mejàre I, Papagiannoulis L, Koch G, Martens LC, Hallonsten AL. Judgement criteria for molarincisor- hypomineralisation (MIH) in epidemiologic studies: a summary of the European meeting on MIH held in Athens, 2003. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2003 Sep;4(3):110-113.

  2.  Koch G, Hallonsten AL, Ludvigsson N, Hansson BO, Holst A, Ullbro C. Epidemiologic study of idiopathic enamel hypomineralisation in permanent teeth of Swedish children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1987;15:279-85.

  3. Leppäniemi A, Lukinmaa PL, Alauusua S. Nonfluoride hypomineralizations in the permanent first molars and their impact on the treatment need. Caries Res 2001;35: 36-40.

  4. van Amerongen WE, Kreulen CM. Cheese molars: A pilot study of the etiology of hypocalcifications in first permanent 1st  molars. ASDC J Dent Child 1995;62:266-9.

  5. Dietrich G, Sperling S, Hetzer G (2003) Molar incisor hypomineralisation in a group of children and adolescents living in Dresden (Germany). Eur J Paediatr Dent 4: 133-137.

  6. Garg N, Jain AK, Saha S, Singh J. Essentiality of early diagnosis of molar incisor hypomineralization in children and review of its clinical presentation, etiology and management. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5:190-6.

  7.  Ghanim A, Morgan M, Mariño R, Bailey D, Manton D. Molar-incisor hypomineralisation: Prevalence and defect characteristics in Iraqi children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2011;21:413-21.

  8.  Ahmadi R, Ramazani N, Nourinasab R. Molar incisor hypomineralization: A study of prevalence and etiology in a group of Iranian children. Iran J Pediatr 2012;22:245-51.

  9. Muratbegovic A, Markovic N, Ganibegovic Selimovic M. Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Aetiology and clinical consequences in medium caries activity population. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2007;8:189-94.

  10.  Alaluusua S, Lukinmaa PL, Vartiainen T, Partanen M, Torppa J, Tuomisto J. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via mother’s milk may cause developmental defects in the child’s teeth. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 1996;1:193-7.

  11.  Jasulaityte l, Veerkamp JS, Weerheijm KL. Molar-incisor hypomineralization: Review and prevalence data from a study of primary school children in Kaunas/Lithuania. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2007;8:87-94.

  12.  Cho SY, Ki Y, Chu V. Molar incisor hypomineralization in Hong Kong Chinese children. Int J Paed Dent 2008;18:348-52.

  13.  Lygidakis NA, Dimou G, Briseniou E. Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH). Retrospective clinical study in Greek children. I. Prevalence and defect characteristics. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2008;9:200-6.

  14.  Zawaideh FI, Al-Jundi SH, Al-Jaljoli MH. Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization: Prevalence in Jordanian children and clinical characteristics. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2011;12:31-6.

  15.  Suckling GW, Brown RH, Herbison GP. The prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in 696 nine-year-old New Zealand children participating in a health and development study. Community Dent Health 1985;2:303-13.

  16. Condo R, Perugia C, Maturo P. MIH: epidemiologic clinical study in paediatric patients. Oral and Implantology Anno V-N. 2-3/2012.

  17.  Beentjes VEVM, Weerheijm KL, Groen HJ. Factors involved in the aetiology of molar-incisor hypomineralisation. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2002 Mar;3(1):9-13.

  18.  Alaluusua S. Aetiology of molar incisor hypomineralization: a systematic review. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2010 Apr;11(2): 53-58.

  19.  Kreshover SJ, Clough OW. Prenatal influences on tooth development II. Artificially induced fever in rats. J Dent Res 1953 Aug;32(4):565-577.

  20.  Alaluusua S, Lukinmaa PL, Koskimies M, Pirinen S, Hölttä P, Kallio M, Holttinen T, Salmenperä L. Developmental dental defects associated with long breast feeding. Eur J Oral Sci 1996 Oct-Dec;104(5-6):493-497.

  21.  Whatling R, Fearne JM. Molar incisor hypomineralization: a study of aetiological factors in a group of UK children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2008 May;18(3):155-162.

Research Incentive Schemes

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (JICRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (JICRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2020 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions