International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR)

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IJCRR - Vol 09 Issue 16, August

Pages: 17-22

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001

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Geo-Environmental Etiology of Allergic Disorders and its Impact on Human Health in Sopore J and K, State, India

Author: Manzoor A. Wani, Sheraz A. Lone, Bashir A. Lone, Ishtiaq A. Mayer, Nisar A. Wani

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:The present study aims to comprehend the causes responsible for the occurrence of allergic disorders and access their impact on human health in peculiar climatic conditions of Sopore tehsil district Baramulla, J and K, State, India.
Objective: To understand the dissemination phenomenon of known allergenic pollen types causing allergic disorders among the people of the selected sample area in Jammu and Kashmir State, India.
Methodology: An effort is being carried out to study airborne pollen and assess their impact on human health in a peculiar climatic condition of Sopore tehsil of district Baramulla in the north region of Kashmir valley of Jammu and Kashmir state by using both primary as well as secondary source of data in order to envisage the relation of environmental factors on the allergic disorders with their impact on the human health.
Results: In the present study 1413 cases of allergic disorders were recorded in the district hospital, sub-district hospital and primary health centers from the year 2010-2015, out of which 57.18 percent were constitutes males. Cases like rhinitis (35.52 percent), conjunctivitis (28.09 percent), dermatitis (15.28 percent) and bronchial asthma (21.08 percent) were recorded in the study area.

Keywords: Temperature variability, wind velocity, pollens, Allergens, Pulmonary disorders

DOI: 10.7324/IJCRR.2017.9164

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The prevalence rate of respiratory and allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis have increased dramatically to epidemic proportions worldwide. The World Allergy Organization (WAO) raises concern of this health hazard and highlights the role of climate-related health impacts on mortality and acute morbidity of respiratory disorders due to extreme meteorological events. Pollens are by and large considered as causative agents of respiratory allergy disorders in any geographic area1. It has been established that the frequency and incidence of allergic pollen is high in areas of low relative humidity, modest temperatures and maximum rainfall2. Pollen dispersal is facilitated by dry weather with low relative humidity as the pollen particles being light and dry disperse in the air with less constraint. Wind velocity and wind direction plays an important role in pollen release and in its transportation during flowering phase5. It has also been observed in Kashmir (India) that besides high temperature and low relative humidity the pollen dispersion from the exotic Australian populous tree enhances the liberation and distribution of pollen resembling light cotton flakes in the atmosphere and are capable to trap the allergen elements (pollen) which unwillingly enters into the human organs through inhaling organs thus irritates the eyes. Air borne allergen pollen flora are widely distributed all over the India  with no exception to Jammu and Kashmir which enjoys  frequent weather changes thus plays a major role in the dispersal of allergen pollens inhaled by human when exposed to open environment7.

Study Area

The study has been carried out in Sopore tehsil,a second order administrative unit of Baramulla district of Jammu and Kashmir State (India). Sopore known as Suyyapur in antiquity is a prosperous geographic region in the state Jammu and Kashmir. It is located at 34030'N latitude, 74047'E longitude, constitutes an area of 320sq.kilometers and is known as “Apple town of Asia”; because of its horticultural produce. The area offers opportunity to the larger people of district to earn livelihood in horticulture/agricultural related activities. Therefore it represents the geographic region of north Kashmir in terms of population composition and its characteristics.

Data base and Methodology

The data was collected from district hospital, sub- district hospital and primary health centers located in the study area. The climatic data was collected from meteorological department Srinagar. Mean monthly temperature, average annual rainfall and average wind velocity from year 2010-2015 were taken into consideration to check seasonal trend. The other factors interlinked with allergic disorders were also taken into consideration such as flora of the region, occupation structure etc.  After disseminating the meteorological data with medical records the impact of allergic disorders on the human health with seasonality were seen on both genders as well as on different age groups in the study area.

Results: Different parameters such as meteorological factors (Temperature, rainfall, wind velocity) from year 2010-2015, occupational structure, and flora were interlinked with various allergen antigens and their impact was seen on the human health in the study area. The results are shown in separate tables listed.

Discussion: In this study it was found that allergen pollen along with various meteorological parameters (Temperature, Rainfall and Wind velocity), flora and flowering period time, occupational structure have a strong bearing on the  human health. In the study area about 1413 cases of allergic disorders were recorded in the district hospital, sub-district hospital and primary health centers from 2010-2015, out of which 57.42 percent of the cases of allergic disorders were related to men of all age group. The higher percentage of males was mainly attributed to nature of work and exposure to open environment in agricultural fields. About 46 percent such cases with rhinitis, conjunctivitis, dermatitis and bronchial asthma were recorded in the month of March- June during. 2010-2015(half decade). 66.38 percent the case were in the age group of 21-50 years being the more potent labour class and is peak season of as agricultural activities in Kashmir valley. The previous nearly six months remains dormant for such activities due harsh winter and inclement weather conditions in the valley. Due to the onset of spring from 21st March in the state people start their work in the fields (Agricultural, Horticulture etc.) in order to generate their daily livelihoods. All the factors favors the allergic disorders such as temperature for the blooming of allergenic pollen flower, wind and moisture require transporting these allergen pollen spores from lower layer of atmosphere to hitting targets mainly (human population). 

Conclusion:  The study highlights the impact of allergic pollens along with different meteorological factors on human health. Clear evidences are traced from the study area which shows a relationship of allergen pollens and human health. Diseases such as Rhinitis, Conjunctivitis, Dermatitis, and Bronchial asthma were recorded in both field as well as from medical records witnessed during different seasons in the study area of all ages irrespective of gender. The study revealed that local factors especially presence of allergen flora, nature of work mainly contributed to etiology of allergic disorders.


Avoidance is the best treatment, but it is very difficult to follow as it is not possible to avoid pollen completely as majority of the life dependence is with agriculture economic activities. General masses can be advised to use air masks thereby reducing the inhaling of allergens. Another method is immunotherapy where extract of a particular antigen or mixed antigen to which patients are allergic is given in very low concentrations initially and then the concentration is increased slowly. As a result, a patient develops antibodies against the specific antigens. More importantly government must to take necessary measurements before introducing any new exotic flora species so to be eco-friendly in nature.


I wish to express my cordial gratitude to my esteemed supervisors Prof. Ishtiaq A. Mayer, for his meritorious, sympathetic and encouraging guidance. Words fail me to explain his inspiring guidance, immense interest, supportive and affectionate behavior. I would like to express my special thanks to my co-authors without their role and self dedication it would have not been possible, every effort from them is priceless.  My special word of thanks goes to Dr. Nisar Ahmad, Dr. Marukh Hameed (Assistant professor in Human Genetics in SKIMS). I am grateful to all the scholars, authors, publishers for all those articles, journals and books where the literature for this study was taken and discussed, I wish them all the best. Last but not least words fail me to translate appropriately my gratitude and deep sense of inner feelings about the inspiration and help provided by my loving family.

Table 1: Occupational structure



Agricultural laborers

Household industry workers







Source: Census department India

Table 1 shows the occupational structure, the main occupation of district Baramulla in general and Sopore tehsil in particular comprises of agricultural cultivators. Both male and females spend most of their time in their field. The peak season of agriculture starts from month of March and it continue till October-November. From month of March the flowering of trees emerge which continues till the month of June. Therefore during pollination various pollens dissimilate with the help of wind.

Table 2: Mean monthly meteorological data of Kashmir valley (average 2010-2015)


Temperature 0celcius

Maximum    Minimum


Average. Rainfall


Wind velocity


































































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