IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 12, December
Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001
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ROLE OF PHYTOMEDICINE AGAINST E.FAECALIS IN ROOT CANAL TREATMENT -AN UPDATE IN
Author: Lakshmi.T, Ravishankar.P
Abstract:Oral diseases such as Dental caries /plaque and Periodontal diseases are caused by micro organisms belonging to the resident micro flora rather than by classic microbial pathogens. They are caused by the ecological imbalance in oral bio films. In clinical studies, an increasing incidence of incipient carious lesions and generalized gingival inflammation have been found in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic appliance. Oral microbial flora is dominated by gram positive micro organisms and hence dental plaque which is formed on the tooth surface contains gram positive cocci and bacilli. Oral health also influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Acidogenic bacteria like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus anginosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis is an potent initiator that causes dental caries/plaques in the Patients receiving fixed appliances in the orthodontic treatment . These dental plaques are more difficult to be removed in the fixed appliances patients. Hence, in our present article, natural products like Acacia catechu willd, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Achillea millifolium, Aesculus hippocastanum, Anacardium occidentale and Eremophila Longifolia that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque in orthodontic patients with fixed appliances is reviewed extensively.
Keywords: Phytomedicine, Root canal Irrigant, E.faecalis, Root canal failure, Treatment.
Root canal treatment is the disinfection of the root canal system, using Endodontic instruments aided by an antimicrobial agent1 . E. Faecalis is believed to be a normal inhabitant of the oral cavity. The prevalence of E. Faecalis is increased in oral rinse samples from patients receiving the endodontic treatment; E. Faecalis is associated with different forms of periradicular disease including primary endodontic infections and persistent infections2.
E. Faecalis can adhere to the root canal walls, accumulate, and form communities organized in bio film, which enables the bacteria to become highly resistant to phagocytosis, antibodies, and antimicrobials than non–bio film-producing organisms .The most effective method to eradicate E faecalis is the use of Sodium hypochlorite and 2% Chlorhexidine3 .
Various literatures reveal the use of Sodium hypochlorite has disadvantages like unpleasant taste, toxicity, and potential weakening of the tooth structure by decreasing the hardness and structural integrity of the dentin within the root canal4 . Medicinal plants that represent a rich source of antimicrobial agents are found to be effective against E.faecalis and further used to prevent the failure of root canal treatment. Having read with great interest in an article titled ?Role of herbs in endodontics?-An update by Sharad kamat et al.5 , we wanted to focus on how the Herbal medicine has the potential to influence Antibacterial properties against E.faecalis.
properties against E.faecalis. Improved dissemination of drugs and heightened efficacy, the current need of the hour, are now possible with the use of herbal medicines which increases the ability to ROLE OF PHYTOMEDICINE AGAINST E.FAECALIS IN ROOT CANAL TREATMENT –AN UPDATE IN DENTISTRY Lakshmi.T1 , Ravishankar.P2 1 Faculty, Department Of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. 2Dental Practitioner, Department Of Conservative Dentistry, Chennai. E-mail of Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail of Corresponding Author: email@example.com 58 International Journal of Current Research and Review www.ijcrr.com Vol. 03 issue 12 December 2011 eradicate infectious diseases without significant toxicity and helps reduce the amount of drug required, the number of doses and bio inactivation.
Anti bacterial activity against E.Faecalis According to a study conducted by Geetha and co workers suggested that Ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu heartwood6 is effective than Aqueous extract as an antibacterial agent against E.faecalis and provides an aid to prevent the root canal failure during Endodontic treatment.Dhanya kumar et al in his study proved that Acacia nilotica and Syzygium aromaticum extract as an beneficial antimicrobial agent against E.faecalis which reduces the root canal microflora and root canal failure7 .
Bokhora and co workers in their findings concluded that the neem (Azadirachta Indica) leaf extract has significant antimicrobial effect against E.faecalis derived from infected root canal samples. Similar study conducted by Naiyak Arathi et al also found that Aqueous and Ethanolic extract of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) leaf showed significant antibacterial activity against E.faecalis8 .
Medicinal plants have a rich source of novel ingredients which are biologically active with least side effects. Hence, use of traditional medicinal plants will certainly boosts our fight against E.faecalis and there is an obvious need for its far-reaching use in Endodontic treatment to prevent the Root canal failure.
We wish to thank the Authors / Editors of those journals from where the References to compile the manuscript are obtained.
Conflict of Interest: Nil
1. Engstrom B. The Significance Of Enterococci In Root Canal Treatment. Odontol Revy 1964; 15:87–106.
2. N. Vivacqua-Gomes et al Recovery Of Enterococcus Faecalis After Single- Or Multiple-Visit Root Canal Treatments Carried Out In Infected Teeth Ex Vivo. International Endodontic Journal, 38, 697– 704, 2005.
3. Charles H Stuart, Scott A Schwartz, Thomas J Beeson (2006). Enterococcus Faecalis: It‘s Role in Root Canal Treatment Failure and Current Concepts and Retreatment. Journal of Endodontics 32 (2): 93-97.
4. Siqueira JF Jr., Rocas IN, Favieri A, Lima KC. Chemomechanical Reduction Of The Bacterial Population In The Root Canal After Instrumentation And Irrigation With 1%, 2.5% And 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite. J Endod 2002; 26:331–34.
5. Sharad kamat, Rajeev k, Prahlad saraf Role of herbs in Endodontics: An update Endodontology journal available at http://medind.nic.in/eaa/t11/i1/eaat11i1p96. pdf
6. Geetha R.V ,Anitha Roy ,Lakshmi.T ?In Vitro Evaluation Of Anti Bacterial Activity Of Heartwood Extract Of Acacia Catechu On Oral Microbes?.International Journal Of Current Research And Review Vol.3 Issue 6 June 2011.
7. Dhanya Kumar N. M, Preena Sidhu The Antimicrobial Activity Of Azardirachta Indica, Glycyrrhiza Glabra, Cinnamum Zeylanicum, Syzygium Aromaticum, Accacia Nilotica On Streptococcus Mutans and Enterococcus Faecalis - An In Vitro Study.Endodontology journal available at http://medind.nic.in/eaa/t11/i1/eaat11i1p16. pdf
8. Naiyak Arathi et al Evaluation of Antibacterial and Anti candidial efficacy of Aqueous and Alcoholic extract of Neem (Azadhiracta indica)-An In Vitro study International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 2(1), Jan-Feb 2011 230-235.