International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR)

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IJCRR - Vol 08 Issue 20, October

Pages: 17-19

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001


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PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PERIPHERAL RETINAL DEGENERATION IN MYOPIC INDIAN ADULTS

Author: Nutan Bedi, Sharda Punjabi

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Objective: To evaluate the relationship between peripheral retinal lesions and axial length of the myopic patients.
Material and Methods: A sample of 360 eyes from 224 myopic patients was examined at eye out patient department of tertiary care hospital from July 2008 to March 2010. Sonography was used for measurement of axial length of Eye ball and peripheral retina was studied by indirect ophthalmoscope examination and slit lamp microscopy.
Chi square test for these qualitative variables with 5% significance was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The average age was 45.32\?11.34 years and the myopia was between 0.5 and 20 dioptres. The peripheral retina showed benign changes including pigment clumps in 128 eyes (35.55%), paving stone degeneration in 102 eyes (28.33%). Snowflakes degenerations were present in 40 eyes (11.11%) and white without pressure degeneration was found in 18 eyes (5%) of patients While 36 eyes (10%) of patients had lattice degeneration, and only 36(10%) patients had normal peripheral retina.
Conclusions: Myopia is a pathological condition associated with peripheral retinal lesions and it can also predispose to various retinal disorders, so it important to diagnose early and treat these patients so that future complications can be minimize.

Keywords: Peripheral Retinal lesions, Paving stone degeneration, Snowflakes degenerations, Lattice degeneration

Full Text:

Introduction

Elongation/ increased axial length of globe are associated with refractive error, usually more than 6 diopteric myopia. (1, 2, 3) In Asian population prevalence of myopia is quite high. (1, 2)

Due to elongation of globe in myopic patients choroid and retina tends to stretch continually which leads to thinning of these layers which ultimately results in retinal degenerative changes.(4)

Peripheral retinal degenerations, retinal tears, retinal detachment, posterior staphyloma, chorioretinal atrophy, retinal pigment epithelial atrophy, lacquercracks, choroidal andmacular haemorrhage are certain common complications to which myopes are usually susceptible. (4, 5, 6)

Some of these retinal lesions may be associated with severe irreversible visual loss andtherefore it is important for clinicians to be aware of the retinal pathologies in high myopia.

Material and Methods

This was a cross sectional, observational, descriptive analytic study conducted in department of Ophthalmology at tertiary health care medical institute. The study included 360 myopic eyes of 224 patients. Immersion technique of sonography was used for measurement of axial length of eye ball and peripheral retina was studied by indirect ophthalmoscope examination and slit lamp bio microscopy.

Inclusion Criteria

  1. Age above 10 years
  2. Ability to cooperate in retinal examination
  3. no symptoms of light flashes and floaters
  4. no history of retinal disease, uveitis, vascular retinopathy, glaucoma
  5. no history of ocular surgery, antiglucoma treatment

Exclusion Criteria

  1. Patients of age less than ten years
  2. Patients who rejects to participate in study.

Procedure

  1. Institutional Ethics Committee permission and approval was taken before starting the study.
  2. OPD - Patient of ophthalmology department were r contacted personally and study was explained to them in brief in their own a language.
  3. Informed Consent of participants was taken.
  4. Appropriate statistical tests were used  for analysis of  results

Results

The 360 eyes from 224 patients included in this study ranged in age from 20-70 years (mean age 45.32±11.34 years for females and 38.22±12.3 years for males). 192 patients were females while 168 patients were males (Table 1).

Table 1: Age and sex distribution of patients

 

Male

Female

years

No. of eyes

%

No  of eyes

%

20-30

16

9.5

28

14.5

31-40

58

34.5

38

19.79

41 -50

44

26.2

61

31.77

51- 60

26

15.5

43

22.39

61-70

24

14.3

30

15.6

Total

168

100

192

100

The myopic refractive error ranged from -0.5 diopter to – 20 diopter (mean refractive error is 10.21±5.43 D (Table2).

Table 2: Degree of refractive error in examined patients

Refractive error

No  of eyes

%

-0.5D  to -5.0D

52

14.44

-5.0D to -10D

126

35

-10D to -15D

116

32.22

-15D to -20D

66

18.33

 

360

100

 

Examination of the peripheral retina revealed the following retinal changes:

The peripheral retina showed benign changes including pigment clumps in 128 eyes (35.55%), paving stone degeneration in 102 eyes (28.33%). Snow-flakes degenerations were present in 40 eyes (11.11%) and white without pressure degeneration was found in 18 eyes (5%) of patients.

While 36 eyes (10%) of patients had lattice degeneration, and only 36 (10%) patients had normal peripheral retina.

Table 3: Type of retinal lesions in patients

Retinal lesions

Number

%

 Pigment clumps

128

35.55

Paving stone degeneration

102

28.33

Snow-flakes degeneration

40

11.11

White without pressure

18

5

Lattice degeneration

36

10

normal

36

10

Total

360

100

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