International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 02, January, 2013

Pages: 118-122

Date of Publication: 26-Jan-2013


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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS ON DIFFERENT TRIMESTERS OF PREGNANCY

Author: Sushma Jadhav, V.B. Dudhamal, S.S. Karadkhedkar, Sayeeda Afroz, N.A. Razvi

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:The Pulmonary function tests were carried out in 70 normal pregnant women attending Antenatal clinic at government medical college Nanded. Out of 70 pregnant women, 16 were of first trimester, 22 were of second trimester and 32 were of third trimester. The aim of the study was to see whether any changes occur in pulmonary function tests in the 3 trimesters of pregnancy.The pregnant ladies were from age group of 16 to 30 years. Their weight and height were recorded. Using computerized med spiror instrument, following paramesters were studied i.e. FVC, FEV 1% FEV3, PEFR and MVV were recorded. 30 non pregnant women of same age group were taken as control group. The readings were compared of first and second trimester, second and third trimester and first and second trimester. Following observations were noted. PEFR was found to be significantly decreased in first trimester while other readings were not significantly decreased in first trimester as compared to second and third trimester. All the parameters also compared with control group. It showed that there was decline in all the values compared to control values, which was highly significant.

Keywords: Trimester PEFR, FEV 1%, FEV 3%, FVC, MVV

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

The pulmonary function tests were carried out in different trimesters of pregnancy, on 70 normal pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Govt. Medical College, Nanded. Out of 70 pregnant women, 16 were of first trimester, 22 were of second trimester and 32 were of third trimester. 30 non pregnant women of same age group were taken as control group. The aim of the study was to see whether any changes occur in pulmonary function test in the 3rd trimesters of pregnancy as compared with that of control group. The pregnant ladies were from age group of 16 to 30 years. Their weight and height were recorded. Using computerized med spiror instrument, following parameters were studied i.e. FVC, FEV1, FEV3, PEFR and MVV were recorded.

METHODS

The study was conducted on 70 normal pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Govt. Medical College Nanded,by prior permission of institutional Ethical committee. The pulmonary function tests were carried out in 1st, 2nd & 3rd trimesters of pregnancy. Age group of pregnant ladies were from 16 to30 yrs. Control group of 30 nonpregnant women of same age group & belonging to same socio-economic status were taken. The anthropometric measurements like height (cm), weight (kg) were recorded. The subjects were made to sit comfortably on a chair and were asked to breathe through mouthpiece of computerized medspiror instruments, with nose clip. All the procedures were carried out in respiratory laboratory during morning hours between 8am to 12pm in quite laboratory set up in order to alleviate the emotional and psychological stress. During the test subject was adequately encouraged to perform at their optimum level. Test was repeated at least three times and the best matching results were considered for analysis. All the recordings were done at the BTPS.

RESULTS

The results showed that mean height (152+3.5 cms), weight (49+5.8kg) of the subject were considerably lower than the western standards. All the subjects were coming from periphery of Nanded district which is considered as a tribal area. It was the cause of lower height and weight. Four respiratory parameters FVC (forced vital capacity %), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in first second), FEV3 (forced expiratory volume is third second) MVV (maximum ventilator volume) and PEFR (peak expiratory flow rate) were determined. Table 1 showed that all the parameters were compared with control group. It showed that there was decline in all the values compared to control values, which was highly significant. Table 2 showed that all the parameters were compared between first and second trimesters, second and third trimesters, first and third trimesters. The parameters compared between first and second showed that decline in values in first trimester as compared to second trimester which was not significant. Only that PEFR shows significant decline values. The parameters compared between second and third trimester showed that only PEFR and MVV decreases from second to third trimester. The parameters compared between first and third trimester showed that there was decline in all parameters from first to third trimesters

DISCUSSION

Four respiratory parameters PVC, FEV1, FEV3, MVV and PEFR were determined in both 70 pregnant women and control group of 30 non pregnant women of same age group. Our results shows highly significant decline in FVC, FEV1, FEV3, MVV and PEFR in all trimesters, of pregnancy as compared to control group. Similar results have been reported by other coworkers. The above declining in the first trimester can be attributed to morning sickness , lack of nutrition and to lodging of trophoblast cells in the alveoli from the maternal uterine sinuses [1], whereas in second and third trimester it may be due to mechanical pressure of enlarging gravid uterus. Elevating the diaphragm and restricting movements of lungs [1] [2] and thus hampening forceful expiration, it may be also due to brochoconstrictor effect of decrease alveolar pco2 on the bronchial smooth muscles. PEFR was found to be significantly decreased in first trimester as compared to second and third trimester. According to reference [3] PEFR is more sensitive to muscular element in respiration and as anemia produces muscle weakness, it reflects in lowering the PEFR. In the first trimester there was anemia due to more sickness and lack of supplementation of iron and calcium as compared to second and third trimester in which the subject were taking the iron and calcium supplementation.[4] FEV1 & FEV1/FVC% were significantly lower in third trimester pregnant women than that of non- pregnant & FEV1/FVC% gradually decrease from 1st to 3rd trimester of pregnant women.(5) FEV1 ,FVC decrease in pregnant group which is a restrictive condition & not obstructive.PEFR decrease states that it might caused by upward displacement of diaphragm, reduced strength of expiratory muscles & mechanical effects of growing uterus. Other factors as morning weakness, lack of motivation & resistance to exertion contribute in decrease MVV.(6) The study showed significant decrease in all as compared to nonpregnant group.(7)

CONCLUSION

Comparative study of pulmonary function tests on different trimesters of pregnancy showed that respiratory parameters like PEFR significantly compromised due to mechanical pressure of gravid uterus, diaphragm restricting the movement of lungs especially in third trimester of pregnancy. There was decrease in respiratory parameters from first to third trimesters of pregnancy due to poor nutrition because all the subjects coming from middle class and poor socio-economic status. Poor nutrition may cause decrease in functions of respiratory muscles. To establish the cause of decrease in respiratory parameters, further studies are to be undertaken by hormonal assay in different trimesters to know effect of increase of hormones on respiratory parameters.

References:

1. Pandy MR. Nishith SD, Bhatt RV, pulmonary functions in pregnancy.J obstel Gynac India 1972;22;1-3.

2. Puranic BM, Kurhade GA, Kaore SWB, Patwardhan SA, Kher Jr. PEFR in pregnancy –A Longitudinal study. Indian J physiol pharmacol 1995; 39 (2)(135-139).

3. Singhal V, Saxena K Effect of anemia on respiratory and metabolic during 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Indian J physiol pharmacol 1987; 3[2]; 130-135.

4. Knuttgen HG, Emerson K, physiological response to pregnancy at rest and during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 1974; 36;549.

5. Monga U, kumari K. pulmonary function in Punjabi pregnant women. Indian J physiol pharmacol 2000; 44 (1); 115-116.

6. Dr Lata Gupta. Evaluation of PFT in normal pregnant (2nd and 3rd trimester) and non pregnant women.

7. John Pramod- effect of advanced gestation on cellular activity in respiratory systems in females.

Research Incentive Schemes

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
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List of Awardees

Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19


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