IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 02, January, 2013
Date of Publication: 26-Jan-2013
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URBAN INDUSTRIALIZATION IS A CAUSE FOR MIGRATION: AN EVIDENCE FROM NORTH - KARNATAKA
Author: Guruprasad Ganeshkar, Rama B. Gouda
Category: General Sciences
Abstract:Industrialization is used as synonym for the development and might also be used for urbanization which creates a wide range of job, business trade opportunities in urban areas. Industrialization in urban areas is leading the rural people to migrate to urban area and there are various reasons for migration. In this connection, an attempt is made in this paper is to analyze the reasons or causes for migration of rural people to urban areas, mainly to industrial sector. With this background, the main objective of the present study is to understand the role and impact of urbanization in migration of rural poor to urban areas. As the study is based on primary data, 220 labours working in different types of industries were interviewed. The present study has been undertaken in Belgaum District of North Karnataka, which is considered as less developed compared to South Karnataka in Karnataka state. This study found that the employment (in industries) related reasons had led the rural people to migrate to urban areas.
Keywords: Labours, Migration, Industrialization, Urbanization, Employment.
In a over populated and developing country, like ours, Industrial development play a vital role in the upliftment of the region. The Government, at the Centre had made a clear announcement of the importance of this sector which is utilizing the massive manpower in both the rural and urban areas. Urban industrialization generally can be defined as the development of all kind of industries in the urban area. It contributes and helps in the involvement and empowerment of common people by demolishing the geographical boundaries. It leads to an equitable distribution of employment opportunities and helps in reducing inequality in per capita income among different regions. Urban industrialization has generated opportunities for the employment seekers and is also attracting rural people to urban areas. Hence, it helps to check rural-urban migration. Thus the present paper attempts to know the impact and role of urban industrialization, which is leading to migration of people from rural areas to urban areas.
Meaning of Migrant
An individual or household member whose last usual place of residence (UPR), anytime in the past, was different from the present place of enumeration was considered as a migrant member in a household. (NSSO, 2011).
Review of Literature
NSS 64th ROUND (2010), in its study found that, rural people are migrating towards urban areas and nearly 67 per cent of households have migrated to urban areas. Mainly these people are been migrated for employment related reasons. Ram B. Bhagat (2005 and 2011), revealed that the rural poor mainly migrate to the near by towns and cities and not mainly to metros. This is due to enormous increase in the cost of living in metros and some big cities. As the rural poor get low wages in subsistence sector in rural areas, are migrating to near by towns and cities which are industrially developing. A huge number of new towns emerged during the last decade with development in basic amenities are attracting rural poor to urban areas. Subhash Chandra Garg (2005), Massive development in the urban infrastructure services had boosted the economics activities in the urban areas. And it has led for the development of industrial and service sectors in those areas. This has in turn increased the employment opportunities in urban areas. Hence, overall development leads to the migration of people from rural to urban areas. Thus number of studies mentioned different types of reasons or causes for migration of rural population to urban areas. In particular to Belgaum district there is no any particular study to relation to the impact of urbanization (industrialization) on rural to urban migration. In this connection, the main objective of this paper is to analyze the causes for migration of rural people to urban areas, mainly to industrial sector.
DATABASE AND METHODOLOGY
The present study is based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data is collected from labours or workers from different industries located in Belgaum city of Karnataka state. Belgaum city falls in North Karnataka was selected for the present study. North Karnataka is considered as less developed compared to South Karnataka as reported by “High Powered Committee on Regional Imbalance and Redressal in Karnataka’ (2002). The selected city which is a large district place having wide industrial base in North Karnataka, with continuously increasing urban population since past two decades. 220 samples were selected from different industry sectors like manufacturing, construction, transport and garments industries in Belgaum city for this case study. The structured schedules were used to collect the relevant data from the labours (migrated people) in different industries. To make the study reliable and efficient equal number of respondents were selected from manufacturing (55), construction (55), transport (55) and garments (55) industries for the present study. Simple statistical tools like percentages, averages etc. were computed to make comparative study and needful analysis. With the above database and methodology the present study mainly concentrates to find the various reasons for migration of people (labours) from rural to Urban Area
. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Many studies have mentioned different types of causes or reasons for migration of rural people to urban areas. In this section an attempt is being made to analyze and discuss the various causes and reasons that lead and sometime force the rural people (labours/workers) to migrate to urban areas. With the sample size of 220 respondents, here the extent of impact of urban industrialization on rural workers/peoples migration to urban area (Belgaum) is analyzed and discussed with the help of table no-1. The causes or reasons for migration are subdivided into two sub aspects they are A) Employment or Industry Related Reasons and B) Other SocioEconomic Reasons. These reasons are explained with the help of Table no.1 and discussed in detail below. And the following discussion shows that the employment or industry related reasons (69.1%) to a large extent had led for the migration of rural people to urban area (Belgaum) from their native. And 30.9% of respondents have revealed the socioeconomic reasons for their migration to urban area. Hence, analysis and discussion made below shows the vital causes for the migration of people from rural to urban area (Belgaum).
REASON FOR MIGRATION
Table no-1 shows the different reasons revealed by the respondents for their migration from rural to urban areas. With the help of results in the table following analysis and discussion is being made
A. Employment or Industry related reasons or causes Employment or industry related reasons are the reasons putforth by the respondents which shows that, people migrated to urban area (Belgaum) in search of employment in industries, in search of business opportunities, to enhance their skills and others which are discussed below. i) In search of direct employment in industries: Total of 19.5(43) percent of respondents proposed that they have migrated to Belgaum city in search of direct employment in industries. Where as 21.8 percent (12), 16.4percent (9) and 23.6 percent (13) of respondents from manufacturing, Construction, and Garments industries mentioned the same cause or reason for there migration
. ii) In search of better employment : People who were working in agriculture field and allied activities where their wages were low, due to this dissatisfaction they had come to the city of enumeration in search of better employment, in terms of emoluments, job satisfaction, etc. Respondents from Manufacturing (14.5 percent), Construction (21.8 percent), Transport (10.9 percent) and Garments (14.5 percent) have give this reason for their migration to urban area. This shows that wage level in rural areas is below satisfaction point. However total of 15.5 percent (34) of total respondents had given this reason for their migration to Belgaum city.
iii) In search of Business opportunities: Table 1 depicts that people had migrated to start a new business in city. Thus out of 220 respondents 6.4 percent of respondents revealed this as the important cause for their migration. From transport industry 16.4 percent (9) respondents have revealed their interest of undertaking their business. Whereas only 3.6 percent (2) respondents from Manufacturing and construction industry shown equal interest for the same.
iv) Expectation of higher Income/ Wage level: Another important cause or reason for migration from rural to urban is the people’s expectation of higher Income/ Wage level in urban area. 21.8 percent (12) of respondents from Transport industries, 20.0 percent (11) from Garment industry, 12.7 percent (07) of Construction and remaining 10.9 percent (06) from manufacturing industry respondents migrated to Belgaum city due to the Expectation of higher Income/ Wage level.
v) To Enhance Skill and experience for self employment: For the purpose of their skill development and experience the respondents are working in different industry sectors, so that after enhancement of their skill and experience they want to be self employed. 5.5 percent (3)from both manufacturing and Construction, and 1.8percent (1) and 3.6 percent(2) of respondents from Transport and Garments industries respectively mentioned the same cause for their migration.
vi) Transfer of service/ contract: Transfer of service/ contract included persons who as part of the employment contract or service liability migrate from one place of posting to another. 9.1 percent (5) respondents from Transport industries, 10.9 percent (06) from Garment industry, 3.6 percent (02) of Construction and remaining 5.5 percent (03) from manufacturing industry respondents migrated to Belgaum city due to transfer of service or contract of job.
B. Other Socio-Economic Causes or Reasons which lead to Migration:
There are some socio-economic factors or causes that led for migration of rural people to urban area. These causes or reasons are discussed briefly below with the help of Table -1.
iii. Natural disaster (drought, flood, tsunami, etc) : 9.1 percent of respondents from manufacturing, 7.3 percent, 1.8 percent and 5.5 percent from construction, transport and garments industry had migrated due to natural disaster caused by earthquake, drought, flood, cyclone, tsunami, etc., were covered under this category. Where as, total of 5.9 percent of respondents have migrated from rural due to this reason.
iv. Social / political problems (riots, terrorism, political refugee, bad law and order, etc.) are also one o f the important cause for migration from rural to urban i.e Belgaum. Only 3 respondents (1.4%) had given this as the reason for their migration to urban areas.
v. Displacement by development project: Sometime undertaking development projects, such as construction of dams, power plants, or starting a new factory, etc., might result in eviction of persons and those affected by such displacements may migrate to other village/ town. Such types of migration were included in this category. 07 respondents have migrated due to this cause in Almatti of Bagalkot district. 7.2 percent of respondents out of 220 respondents had migrated due to this reason.
vi. Children Education / Studies: For the purpose of their children’s higher education some of the respondents are migrated to Belgaum city. 5.9 percent (13) respondents revealed this cause or reason for their migration to Belgaum.
vii. Housing Problems: Certain persons moved from their natives or rural areas to Belgaum due to the problems of getting suitable accommodation, poor amenities in rural areas etc. 5.0 percent (11) of total respondents have mentioned this cause as the reason for their migration.
viii. Health Care: Persons sometimes moved from one place to another due to the availability of better medical facilities for treatment or conditions in urban city. And due to this factor cause or reason 5.0 percent (11) of total respondents migrated to urban area i.e. Belgaum.
ix. Migration of parent/ earning member of the family: Sometimes the family members, parent or earning member of the family were passive movers form their village or rural area to urban area. 4.1 percent (9) respondents have given this as the cause for their migration. Thus after analyzing the above table-1 it is found that the employment and business opportunities in different industrial sectors of Belgaum urban area motivate the people to migrate from nearby urban area i.e. Belgaum.
Respondents plan for Migration
With the help of Table no-2 respondents plan for migration is discussed. This shows the extent to which the respondents migrated to urban area (Belgaum) i.e, whether migration is permanent or yet they are planning to migrate or not migrating permanently. From the study it was found that more than 50 percent respondents had completely migrated to urban area (Belgaum). From table-2 it is found that 51.8 percent (114) respondents have already settled in Belgaum city, where as among them 56.4 percent (31) respondents from Garments industry, 52.7 percent (29), 36.4 percent (20) and 61.8 percent (34) respondents from construction, transport and garments have already or permanently settled i.e. migrated to Belgaum urban area. Mainly Garments (61.8 percent) and manufacturing (56.4 percent) have to a large extent migrated. In case of people who are temporarily settled/migrated in Belgaum are about 38.2 percent (21), 25.5 percent (14), 21.8 percent (12) and 20.0(11) from construction, manufacturing, transport and garment industries respectively. 14.5 percent (32) of the total respondents revealed that they are migrating completely only after getting permanent job in some industry or any kind of business in Belgaum urban area. Among These respondents majority of them were from transport (27.3 percent) and Garments (14.5 percent). 7.3 percent (16) of the respondents are not planning to settle or migrate in Belgaum and they are going back to their native villages. From the above analysis it is found that majority of the respondents are supposed to settle in Belgaum urban city.
Migration from rural to urban is acceptable from the point of rural people’s expectation for higher wages in urban areas. But migration from rural to urban is not good from the point of view of rural economy, as rural agriculture and their allied activities will be affected severely. Hence, few suggestion are put forth here which could control the migration or which could lead to limited migration from rural to urban areas. ? Increasing the employment/ job/business opportunities in rural areas through promotion and development of micro, cottage and small industries in rural areas. ? Agriculture should be developed providing new technologies, so that enough production or income from this sector would not lead to migration of rural people. And along with the agriculture, its allied activities need to be promoted and developed. These allied activities are the best source of income generating activities to the rural people. ? Development of infrastructural and basic amenities like health, sanitation, education, transport, communication, ICT etc in rural areas. Increasing the trade opportunities in rural areas is also necessary. ? Providing financial assistance, functional and vocational training, entrepreneurship development training to the young generation to start up their own enterprises or ventures like cottage and micro industries, stationary or petty shops etc. Hence, Government should also take necessary measures in relation to above discussed suggestion by framing and implementing new policies and programmes.
The present study made an attempt to understand the role of industrialization in urban areas which has led to migration of rural people to urban areas. As industrialization has led to increase in wage levels of labours which is more than or above subsistence level (as it is very low in rural agricultural). Higher employment, business opportunities and development of infrastructural, basic amenities in urban areas caused for the migration of rural people/labours to urban areas.
We authors are thankful to all the researchers and authors of whom we have made references for their significant contributions in connection with SSI sector. And we are also grateful to IJCRR editorial board members, team of reviewers who have helped us to bring quality to this present paper
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